From: yuku@mail.trends.ca (Yuri Kuchinsky)
Subject: Old Copper Culture in America
Date: 13 Sep 1999 00:00:00 GMT
Message-ID: <7rj5m8$hsh$1@hub.org>

Greetings,

Here's my promised analysis of the Old Copper Culture in America, and
its seeming links with the Mediterranean. I've again summarised Madison,
and then included some additional new info.

                        ______________


"Mop-up operations are what engage most scientists throughout their
careers. Mopping-up is what normal science is all about. This
paradigm-based research is "an attempt to force nature into the
pre-formed and relatively inflexible box that the paradigm supplies". No
effort is made to call forth new sorts of phenomena, no effort to
discover anomalies. When anomalies pop up, they are usually discarded or
ignored. Anomalies are usually not even noticed and no effort is made to
invent a new theory (and theres no tolerance for those who try)."
(Based on _The Structure of Scientific Revolutions_, by Thomas S. Kuhn.)

So here are some more "archaeological anomalies" for scholars to ponder
on. The following is from Madison (I include my comments in square
brackets). I only include here some excerpts that contain clear
archaeological evidence for trans-Atlantic cultural similarities
starting ca 4500 BC and up to 700 BC. By the looks of it, as these
"anomalies" keep accumulating, they are just about ready to overturn the
old paradigm of American Isolationism. However well it is entrenched in
the groves of the academe, it's about time for it to follow the old
Clovis Barrier Myth along with the Flat Earth Theory on their way to the
dump.

[quote]

http://www.execpc.com/~talossa/berb4.html

According to historian Alice Kehoe of Marquette University, travellers
using the Irminger Current past Iceland and Greenland helped carry trade
and cultures both ways across the North Atlantic (Kehoe [in Carroll L.
Riley, et al., eds., Man Across the Sea: Problems of Pre-Columbian
Contacts (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971)], 285ff). The impact
from this trade was quickly felt all over the St. Lawrence River valley
and down the American East Coast (Map 3): around 4500 BC a new culture
known as the "Late Archaic" emerged "suddenly," with no discernable
predecessor. All its traits, including gorges, adzes, plummets, ground
slate points and knives, barbed bone harpoons and peculiar chipped stone
projectile points, occur in northwestern Europe at an earlier date
(Kehoe, 286).

[Important evidence here.]

Distinctive "dolmens" (multi-ton boulders balanced precisely on three
smaller stones) were constructed on both sides of the Atlantic. Received
opinion holds this to be pure coincidence, but it is hardly plausible
that these enormous and distinctive structures should "just happen" to
be invented on two different continents at exactly the same time,
especially in the one part of America most accessible to the Megalith
builders of Europe (Trento, ch. 2). After 3500 BC, at the height of
Megalithic influence from Europe, the first small burial mounds begin to
appear on the American East Coast in imitation of the Berber practice
(Fagan, 361).

[Hardly can be considered a coincidence. Then "Old Copper Culture"
appears in N America, around Lake Superior, not long after 3000 BC.]

The chief artifact of the Old Copper Culture is, of course, copper; a
vast range of copper tools appears suddenly in the archaeological record
with no antecedent. Mason remarks: "Incredible numbers of copper
artifacts, tens of thousands in eastern Wisconsin alone, attest to a use
of the metal that is at variance with historical and ethnographic
descriptions of Indian life" (Mason, 185). The mines these Berbers
established yielded mind-boggling amounts of copper an estimated 500,000
tons! Only a tiny fraction of this can be accounted for in New World
archaeological sites, so where did the rest of it all go? The best
explanation is that it went to the growing civilizations of the
Mediterranean, to fuel the growing "chalcolithic" economies of the Old
World (Bailey, 29f; Fingerhut, 49). The Berbers who settled the New
World have left records of their first appearance; sculptured stones
north of Lake Superior closely resemble those found in the
Berber-speaking Canary Islands (Bailey, 101). Indeed the resemblance is
so obvious that some scholars once suggested that the Canary Islanders
originated in America (Sergi, 129).

Old Copper Culture (including "Red Ochre" phase)

Arose ca. 3000 BC (WA 67:217)

Flexed burials (WA 67:225)
Burial in mounds (WA 67:229)
Cremation (WA 67:225)
Burial with stone arrowheads (WA 67:221)
Burial with copper daggers (WA 67:220)
Burial without pottery (WA 67:234)
Bow-shaped pendants (WA 67:219f)
Hunter-gatherers (WA 67:227)
Red ochre in burial (WA 67:229)
Wrist-guards (WA 67:222)
Copper mining using fire and water (WA 67:220)
"Annealed" (tempered) copper (WA 67:220)

Beaker Group Culture (especially in North Africa)

Arose ca. 3000 BC (Trump, 148f)

Flexed burials (Schutz, 120f)
Burial in mounds (Cunliffe, 251ff)
Cremation (Schutz, 120f)
Burial with stone arrowheads (Harrison, 92ff)
Burial with copper daggers (Harrison, 111)
Burial without pottery (Mokhtar, 435)
Bow-shaped pendants (Harrison, 51f)
Hunter-gatherers (Harrison, 23 and 100)
Red ochre in burial (Camps 1961, 521ff)
Wrist-guards (Harrison, 9)
Copper mining using fire and water (Schutz, 127f)
"Annealed" (tempered) copper (Schutz, 127f)

[After around 1500 BC the cultures of Western Europe were disrupted by
Celtic invasions, and it is possible that some of these peoples migrated
to America].

At this point in the archaeological record, Berber cultural traits
appear suddenly and mysteriously all across the eastern United States
and in the Caribbean. North African bent-stick and split-stick hafting
techniques for grooved stone axes, for example, spread throughout the
region. Agriculture, pottery, earthen mounds, and "new artifacts"
arrived suddenly (Mason, 202). In Central America, pottery dating from
this period is virtually identical to that being produced by North
African Berbers (Kennedy 1971, 270f). All over the northeastern part of
North America, the dominant "Vinette 2" style of pottery shows clear
Iberian Beaker influence (Kehoe, 290f).

[Seems like solid evidence to me.]

At the same time, The Old Copper Berbers in southeastern Wisconsin,
Michigan, Illinois and Indiana begin to employ the use of red ochre in
their burial rites in large quantities. Archaeologists often refer to
this stage of Berber development as a "Red Ochre Culture" (Mason 224).
But it is important to note that the Old Copper and Red Ochre "cultures"
were in truth a single entity (WA 67:229; Griffin, 239; Map 3). This use
of red ochre in burial rites is, needless to say, a well-known feature
of Berber culture (Camps 1974,
..
Berber inscriptions are found on the Cape Verde Islands, far out in the
Atlantic (Mercer, 64), while Berber potters brought their techniques to
Central America. Pottery from El Salvador, dated to around 1500 BC, is
virtually identical to Berber pottery of the same period found in
Morocco, near the Canary Islands (Kennedy 1971, 270f).

..after 1100 the Urnfield Celts invaded Spain and began eradicating the
last Beaker civilization. Without a doubt, this disrupted what was left
of the Beaker trade with the New World, and at roughly the same time,
"for reasons not yet understood," the Isle Royale copper mines were
abandoned and there occurred in the New World a notable decline in the
use of copper to manufacture everyday tools (Bailey, 23; WA 67:227).
..
The chronological "coincidences" are too much for chance. In both Europe
and the New World, at the very same time, Megalithic cultures arise
around 4500 BC; then on both continents, at the very same time,
copper-using Beaker-inspired cultures arise in 3000 BC. Next, the Beaker
Groups flee from conquest in 1500 BC, and their Beaker cultural traits
begin to be widespread in North America; finally in both Europe and the
New World, at the very same time, Beaker-derived cultures collapse in
700 BC.

[end quote]

And here's some more evidence. This is what Gunnar Thompson writes in
his AMERICAN DISCOVERY, Seattle, 1994, on p. 148,

"Recent assays reveal that some of the copper artefacts found in N
American burial mounds were made from zinc-copper alloys used in the
Mediterranean [the endnote here cites Scripps Howard News Service story
of March 27, 1991]. Ancient metal crafters added zinc to harden copper
into a bronze alloy. The shapes of the copper tools found in American
archaeological sites are identical to those of the ancient
Mediterranean, including chisels, dagger blades, wedges, hoes, scythes,
axes and spear points. These tools often have specific modifications,
including the use of rivets, spines and sockets, all of which were
characteristic of Mediterranean tools."

And he includes an illustration on p. 149 portraying side by side copper
tools from America and from the Mediterranean, including the above
mentioned chisels, dagger blades, wedges, hoes, scythes, axes and spear
points, and also adzes, chisels, draw knifes, spuds, sleeves, barbs,
stems, and decorative pins. Attributions for these drawings are
provided. The tools on both sides of the Atlantic look remarkably
similar.

"Normal science does not aim at novelties of fact or theory and, when
successful, finds none. Nonetheless, new and unsuspected phenomena are
repeatedly uncovered by scientific research, and radical new theories
have again and again been invented by scientists . Fundamental novelties
of fact and theory bring about paradigm change. So how does paradigm
change come about? There are two ways: through discovery - novelty of
fact - or by invention  novelty of theory. Discovery begins with the
awareness of anomaly - the recognition that nature has violated the
paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science. The area of
the anomaly is then explored. The paradigm change is complete when the
paradigm has been adjusted so that the anomalous become the expected.
The result is that the scientist is able "to see nature in a different
way"." (Based on _The Structure of Scientific Revolutions_, by Thomas S.
Kuhn.)

Yes, the first step is THE AWARENESS OF ANOMALY. Of course a little
honesty is necessary here. How long can these things be swept under the
rug? It's about time for the RECOGNITION that NEW AND INDISPUTABLE
EVIDENCE has VIOLATED the paradigm-induced expectations that govern
"normal American archaeology".

Regards,

Yuri.

Yuri Kuchinsky  -=O=- http://www.trends.ca/~yuku

A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely
rearranging their prejudices -=O=- William James

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