[In the interests of scientific objectivity, I also provide at the end 
of this file some information about an opposing view on this subject, 
based on another set of tests performed by E. Hagelberg. Readers are 
encouraged to compare these two sets of tests for themselves.]


Subject:      Re: Easter Island history anyone?
From:         yuku@mail.trends.ca (Yuri Kuchinsky)
Date:         1997/09/21
Message-ID:   <603nnm$6if$1@news.trends.ca>
Newsgroups:   sci.archaeology,sci.anthropology,alt.native


There are tests and there are tests, I suppose...

The following comes from EASTER ISLAND: THE MYSTERY SOLVED, by Thor
Heyerdahl, Random House, N.Y. 1989,

All this was taking place during the 1955 archaeological expedition
led by Heyerdahl.

     ...our expedition doctor, Emil Gjessing, sampled blood from all
     those islanders who, according to Father Sebastian [the long
     time island priest who was very knowledgeable about the history
     of the island], were of pure local lineage. With the ship's
     refrigeration system, we were able to deliver fresh blood at 4
     degrees C. to the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory in Melbourne.
     This would permit the identification of blood genes never
     previously studied from the East Pacific. [Samples were also
     taken from several eastern Polynesian islands.] ... The results
     [Dr. R. T. Simmons and his Melbourne colleagues] published in
     1955 buried many wild theories about Pacific Ocean
     relationships. They concluded that "there is a close genetic
     relationship between American Indians and Polynesians." and "no
     similar relationship is evidenced when Polynesians are compared
     with Melanesians, Micronesians, and Indonesians except mainly
     in adjacent areas of direct contact." (p. 210)

Of course the above information was retested later:

     The discovery that Polynesian was genetically similar to
     America, while the rest of Oceania was similar to Asia, was so
     unexpected that an independent analysis of new blood samples
     from Easter Island was conducted by an international work group
     consisting of E. and A. Thorsby, J. Colombani, J. Dausset, and
     J. Figueroa. They reached the same conclusion: the blood genes
     pointed clearly to aboriginal America. (p. 210)

Simmons, R.T., et al., A BLOOD GROUP GENETICAL SURVEY IN COOK
ISLANDERS, POLYNESIA, AND COMPARISONS WITH AMERICAN INDIANS, American
Journal of Anthropology, New Series 13 (4) (Dec., 1955).
Philadelphia.

Thorsby, E., Colombani, J., Dausset, Ja., Figueroa, J., and Thorsby,
A., HL-A BLOOD GROUP AND SERUM TYPE POLYMORPHISM OF NATIVES ON EASTER
ISLAND, Histocompatibility Testing 1972 (1973). Copenhagen.

I suppose this is not the first time when solid evidence that
happened to be inconvenient for the discipline blinded by ideological
preconceptions mixed with general lethargy and shiftlessness was
ignored and swept under the rug?

Regards,

Yuri.

			-=-=-

[There also exists a different set of blood tests. For more information 
about this opposing view, please look up the following post by Bernard 
Ortiz de Montellano in DejaNews archives:]

[quote:]              
                                                                          
Subject:      Re: Easter Island history anyone?                           
From:         bortiz@earthlink.net (Bernard Ortiz de Montellano)          
Date:         1997/09/21                                                  
Message-ID:   
Newsgroups:   sci.archaeology,sci.anthropology,alt.native                 
                                                                          
        ...                                                               
                                                                          
E. Hagelberg, "Ancient DNA Studies", Evolutionary Anthropology 2 (#6):     
199-207 (1993/1994) [review] tested Heyerdahl. Hagelberg had previously   
determined that there was a mtDNA mutation (9 base pair deletion) that was
found as one major mtDNA lineage throughout the vast geography of ancient 
and modern Polynesia. Hagelberg analyzed the skeletal remains of 12       
individuals from two archaeological contexts in Easter Island...          
                                                                          
[end quote]                                                               

A number of problems exist with Hagelberg's tests. For example, these 
skeletons Hagelberg tested came from a rather late historical period. 
We do not currently possess any very old Easter Island human remains, 
apparently. See a more detailied discussion in DejaNews. I certainly 
do not think Hagelberg's tests are more reliable compared to the tests 
described in this article.

Yuri.
   _________________________________________________________________


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