[In the interests of scientific objectivity, I also provide at the end of this file some information about an opposing view on this subject, based on another set of tests performed by E. Hagelberg. Readers are encouraged to compare these two sets of tests for themselves.] Subject: Re: Easter Island history anyone? From: email@example.com (Yuri Kuchinsky) Date: 1997/09/21 Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Newsgroups: sci.archaeology,sci.anthropology,alt.native There are tests and there are tests, I suppose... The following comes from EASTER ISLAND: THE MYSTERY SOLVED, by Thor Heyerdahl, Random House, N.Y. 1989, All this was taking place during the 1955 archaeological expedition led by Heyerdahl. ...our expedition doctor, Emil Gjessing, sampled blood from all those islanders who, according to Father Sebastian [the long time island priest who was very knowledgeable about the history of the island], were of pure local lineage. With the ship's refrigeration system, we were able to deliver fresh blood at 4 degrees C. to the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory in Melbourne. This would permit the identification of blood genes never previously studied from the East Pacific. [Samples were also taken from several eastern Polynesian islands.] ... The results [Dr. R. T. Simmons and his Melbourne colleagues] published in 1955 buried many wild theories about Pacific Ocean relationships. They concluded that "there is a close genetic relationship between American Indians and Polynesians." and "no similar relationship is evidenced when Polynesians are compared with Melanesians, Micronesians, and Indonesians except mainly in adjacent areas of direct contact." (p. 210) Of course the above information was retested later: The discovery that Polynesian was genetically similar to America, while the rest of Oceania was similar to Asia, was so unexpected that an independent analysis of new blood samples from Easter Island was conducted by an international work group consisting of E. and A. Thorsby, J. Colombani, J. Dausset, and J. Figueroa. They reached the same conclusion: the blood genes pointed clearly to aboriginal America. (p. 210) Simmons, R.T., et al., A BLOOD GROUP GENETICAL SURVEY IN COOK ISLANDERS, POLYNESIA, AND COMPARISONS WITH AMERICAN INDIANS, American Journal of Anthropology, New Series 13 (4) (Dec., 1955). Philadelphia. Thorsby, E., Colombani, J., Dausset, Ja., Figueroa, J., and Thorsby, A., HL-A BLOOD GROUP AND SERUM TYPE POLYMORPHISM OF NATIVES ON EASTER ISLAND, Histocompatibility Testing 1972 (1973). Copenhagen. I suppose this is not the first time when solid evidence that happened to be inconvenient for the discipline blinded by ideological preconceptions mixed with general lethargy and shiftlessness was ignored and swept under the rug? Regards, Yuri. -=-=- [There also exists a different set of blood tests. For more information about this opposing view, please look up the following post by Bernard Ortiz de Montellano in DejaNews archives:] [quote:] Subject: Re: Easter Island history anyone? From: email@example.com (Bernard Ortiz de Montellano) Date: 1997/09/21 Message-ID:Click here to go one level up in the directory.
Newsgroups: sci.archaeology,sci.anthropology,alt.native ... E. Hagelberg, "Ancient DNA Studies", Evolutionary Anthropology 2 (#6): 199-207 (1993/1994) [review] tested Heyerdahl. Hagelberg had previously determined that there was a mtDNA mutation (9 base pair deletion) that was found as one major mtDNA lineage throughout the vast geography of ancient and modern Polynesia. Hagelberg analyzed the skeletal remains of 12 individuals from two archaeological contexts in Easter Island... [end quote] A number of problems exist with Hagelberg's tests. For example, these skeletons Hagelberg tested came from a rather late historical period. We do not currently possess any very old Easter Island human remains, apparently. See a more detailied discussion in DejaNews. I certainly do not think Hagelberg's tests are more reliable compared to the tests described in this article. Yuri. _________________________________________________________________