Subject: Re: Amerindian navigators and Eurocentrism in scholarship From: email@example.com (Yuri Kuchinsky 17784) Date: 1997/09/23 Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Newsgroups: sci.archaeology,sci.anthropology,alt.folklore.science, soc.culture.native "William R. Belcher" <email@example.com> wrote on Tue, 23 Sep 1997 05:49:52 -0700 in sci.archaeology in thread: Re: KRS + Re: precolumbian Amerindian horse? Yuri: Please supply the "solid historical sources" for the Inca expedition to the Pacific Islands. I am unaware of any such sources and would appreciate you posting the references to these sources. Thank you in advance. William Belcher =============== Dear William, Not only will I supply the references for you, but I will also supply whole long relevant passages, since all this has been very helpfully posted in sci.arch long time ago by our dear friend Larry Elmore. I suppose a number of people missed it, so they will probably be very glad to see all this material now... Also, Larry posted much detail about the ocean going ships (balsa rafts) Native South Americans built and sailed before the Spanish colonizers came and destroyed that ancestral tradition. I can provide this as well if someone is interested. Be well and prosper, Yuri. [begin quote:] Subject: Amerindian Navigation From: "Larry J. Elmore" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: 1997/07/22 Message-Id: <01bc96d0$0c68f3e0$826700cf@ljelmore> Newsgroups: sci.archaeology All of these references are drawn from the first chapter of "Pyramids of Tucume" (1995) by Thor Heyerdahl, Daniel H. Sandweiss and Alfredo Narvaez. Published by Thames and Hudson Inc., New York. ... Bartolome de Las Casas recorded that in 1512, the son of a Cuna chief in Panama told the Spaniards about the existence of another ocean on the other side of the isthmus and that, 'other peoples navigated there with ships or vessels a little smaller than ours, using sails and paddles . . . and he gave much news concerning the peoples and riches of Peru, and the balsa rafts in which they navigated with paddles and sails.' -- Las Casas, B. 1994  "Historia de las Indias". Alianza, Madrid. Chapter XLI. ... Pascual de Andagoya, the first Spaniard to explore down the Panamanian coast towards the northern border of Columbia, wrote about the natives of coastal Peru and Ecuador: "They go to the sea to fish, and navigate along the coast in balsas made of light logs, which are so strong that the sea has much ado to break them. They carry horses and many people, and are navigated with sails, like ships . . . The inhabitants have a manufactory where they make cordage of a sort of 'nequen' which is like a carded flax; the cord is beautiful, and stronger than that of Spain, and their cotton canvas is excellent." -- Andagoya, P. 1865 [1541-46] 'Narrative of the Proceedings of Pedrarias Davila in the Provinces of Tierra Firme or Catilla del Oro : and of the Discovery of the South Sea and the Coasts of Peru and Nicaragua'. Hakluyt Society Vol. 34, London. ... Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa wrote, "Marching and conquering on the coast of Manta, and the island of Puna, and Tumbes, there arrived in Tumbes some merchants who had come by sea from the west, navigating the balsas with sails. They gave information of the land whence they came, which consisted of some islands called Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, where there were many people and much gold." [the Spanish, of course, thought they heard mentions of 'much gold' in practically any Indian accounts regarding more distant lands. LJE] Tupac Yupanqui had a large number of balsas constructed and set sail with 20,000 men to see these islands for himself. He returned with "black people, gold, a chair of brass, and a skin and jaw-bone." The expedition took "nine months, others say a year, and, as he was so long absent, everyone believed he was dead." -- Sarmiento de Gamboa 1907  'History of the Incas', translated and ed. C. Markham. Hakluyt Society 2nd ser. Vol. 22, Cambridge. p. 135. "Father Miguel Cabello Valboa, who worked among the indigenous Peruvians for 36 years, refers to Inca Tupac's ocean voyage in two of his books. A copy of the manuscript of his first work, 'Miscelanea Antartica' is preserved in the New York Public Library and was published in Lima in 1951. The text includes a reference to Inca Tupac's first encounter with the Pacific on the jungle coast of Ecuador and of his voyage on a large number of balsa rafts to the islands in the South Seas. [Cabello Valboa, M. 1951  'Miscelanea Antartica'. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. pp. 322-323, Part III, Chapter 17] "In his 'History of Peru', Cabello also cites the impressive travels of Inca Tupac, and includes a chapter on 'His voyage by sea'. He concludes: 'I dare not confirm this deed, nor determine the islands in question, but the Indians report that the Inga brought back from this expedition a great number of prisoners whose skin was black, much gold and silver, a throne of copper, and skins of animals similar to horses. One is quite ignorant of where in Peru or the ocean washing its coast he could have found such things.' [Ibid.] When Cabello and Sarmiento recorded these relatively recent events in Inca oral history, the Europeans had not yet discovered any inhabited island in the open Pacific, only the uninhabited Galapagos group. These islands were so [relatively] close to Ecuador that they were regularly visited by fishermen on balsa rafts from early pre-Inca times [Heyerdahl, T. and A. Skjolsvold. 1956 "Archeological Evidence of Pre-Spanish Visits to the Galapagos Islands". 'American Antiquity' 22 (2, Part 3) pp. 1-71]. into the 17th century [Ringrose, B. 1704 "The Dangerous Voyage, and Bold Attempts of Capt. Bartholomew Sharp". In 'The History of the Bucaniers of America Vol. 2', ed. A.O. Exquemelin, Part IV. Printed for Tho. Newborough ... John Nicholson ... and Benj. Tooke, London. pp. 58, 64] and even later [Skogman, C.J.A. 1854 'Fregatten Eugenies resa omkring jorden aren 1851-1853 Vol. I' A Bonnier, Stockholm. p. 164]. Whereas Father Cabello admitted his ignorance as to where there could be inhabited islands off the coast of Peru, the navigator Sarmiento decided to find them. He persuaded the new Viceroy of Peru to organize an expedition, led by Commander Mendana, in which Sarmiento participated as navigator. He had obtained exact sailing directions from the learned Inca 'amautas' and the expedition left Callao in 1567, setting a course west-southwest, directly for Easter Island. But after 26 days, quarrels with Sarmiento made Mendana change course to northwest, just before they would have discovered the island, [then later returned to the original heading just in time to miss the Marquesas Islands. LJE] and they continued at sea until they landed among 'black' people in Melanesia. To return against the trade winds and contrary currents, the Mendana expedition had to sail first far north and then to Peru by way of the North Pacific and Panama. Tupac's balsa fleet must have done the same, and thus could have returned with black islanders and trophies of gold and copper from Central America." "Since 1947, when the balsa raft 'Kon Tiki' (ill. 13) sailed from Callao to Polynesia, 14 manned rafts of balsa logs or totora reeds have sailed from Peru and Ecuador. Two reached the Galapagos and 12 reached islands in Polynesia, of which five continued to Melanesia and four successfully traveled on to Australia. There are strong reasons to suspect that Inca Tupac Yupanqui's 'Nina-chumbi' or 'Fire-island', was Easter Island; not only because it fits Sarmiento's information both in direction and distance [Heyerdahl, T. 1952 'American Indians in the Pacific: The Theory Behind the Kon-Tiki Expedition'. Allen & Unwin, London. pp. 572-574.] [Heyerdahl, T. 1978 'Early Man and the Ocean'. Allen & Unwin, London. Chapter 7 (Incas Led the Europeans to Polynesia)], but also because Easter Island's discoverer (Jacob Roggeveen from Chile in 1722) and rediscoverer (Felipe Gonzalez from Peru in 1770) both expressly state that they found the island because the islanders set smoke signals all along the coast to attract attention when they approached. There can be no doubt also that the 'Ava-chumbi' of Inca Tupac is the Kava islet in the Gambier group of Mangareva, the next inhabited island nearest to Peru after Easter Island. The noted Polynesian anthropologist Sir Peter Buck, ignorant of Inca history but the leading authority on Polynesian traditions, quotes an old Polynesian manuscript in his work 'Ethnology of Mangareva'. This states that a visitor to Mangareva called Tupa sailed to the island through a passage subsequently named 'Te-Ava-nui-o-Tipa' (great-channel-of-Tupa). The manuscript also tells how, before Tupa returned to his own country, 'he told the Mangarevans about a vast land . . . which contained a large population ruled by powerful kings.' [Buck, P.H. 1938 'Ethnology of Mangareva'. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 157, Honolulu, Hawaii. pp. 22-23, p. 453] -- Heyerdahl, 1995, pp. 30-32. Yuri Kuchinsky in Toronto -=O=- http://www.io.org/~yuku Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away -=O=- Philip K. DickClick here to go one level up in the directory.