Subject: yes, we have the proof: transpacific trading networks From: email@example.com (Yuri Kuchinsky 17784) Date: 1997/08/29 Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Newsgroups: sci.archaeology.mesoamerican,sci.archaeology, sci.anthropology,alt.folklore.science Greetings all, I have promised to present here some solid evidence indicating ancient transpacific trade. Yes, this evidence is available, and has been for a very long time. It is a miracle of miracles that nobody here, in these ngs, or even in the specialist academic community at large has heard much of this before. This is a perfect example of selective learning, and of selective memory. I guess in the established rather biased atmosphere in this field of study, certain things are better left unlearned, or else forgotten? This evidence deals with the money cowry shells, _Cyprea Moneta_, native to the Indian Ocean area. This is what George Carter says about it in his article CULTURAL HISTORICAL DIFFUSION (1988), In 1917 ... Willfred Jackson published a major work on human use of shells. I have since written extensively on the role of this cowrie, and Thor Heyerdahl, in THE MALDIVE MYSTERY (1986), has expanded our knowledge on the source of these shells. Money cowries come from the Indian Ocean, but have been found in a burial mound from the Adena culture in Tennessee (500 bc - ad 500). This money cowry was a most significant find, for it is a biological item not subject to independent invention. Not only was it physically present in America as early as Adena time, but it was found to be currently in use in the most sacred rite of Algonkin tribes along the Great Lakes, the Midewiwin society. As Jackson noted, nor only was it the same shell, but the same magical usages were associated with it in West Africa. There is also ample evidence that this rite was transmitted in hieroglyphic writing. This produces a total picture of a very early cultural complex including a biological item that has to be of Old World origin. This association of biological, non-reinventable items with complex beliefs and religious practices forms evidence most difficult for isolationist, independent-inventionists to dispose of. (p. 5) So here we are, ladies and gentlemen. Let our isolationists critics deal with this now. I suppose some of our Eurocentric critics simply cannot imagine how those ancient tribal peoples could sail the oceans thousands of years before their great hero Columbus could do it? Debunk this, my friends... Regards, Yuri. George F. Carter, CULTURAL HISTORICAL DIFFUSION, in THE TRANSFER AND TRANSFORMATION OF IDEAS AND MATERIAL CULTURE, Peter J. Hugill and D. Bruce Dickson, eds, Texas A & M University Press, 1988. W. S. Jackson, SHELLS AS EVIDENCE OF THE DIFFUSION OF EARLY CULTURES, Manchester: Manchester U. Press, 1917. === Yuri Kuchinsky in Toronto -=O=- http://www.io.org/~yuku It is a far, far better thing to have a firm anchor in nonsense than to put out on the troubled seas of thought -=O=- John K. Galbraith _________________________________________________________________Click here to go one level up in the directory.